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What is Fast Fashion?


Ever noticed how fashion trends seem to come and go in the blink of an eye? One moment, you’re sporting the latest look, and the next, it’s already old news. This phenomenon is all thanks to fast fashion. 

Fast fashion has become an exciting part of the lives of fashion enthusiasts, promising you can dress like your favourite celebrities and follow the latest fashion trends, all at a fraction of the cost. It’s almost too good to be true.

But, here’s the catch: Those affordably priced, ultra-trendy garments you love to flaunt come at a cost beyond what you see on the price tag. It has a dark side that impacts people and the planet. So, what makes fast fashion the whirlwind that it is and why is it getting a bad rap?

What Is Fast Fashion and Why Is It Bad?

Fast Fashion

In fast fashion, everything happens, well, fast. Trends change fast, clothes are made in a hurry, people buy them rapidly, and they get delivered in no time. And here’s one more thing: people quickly stop wearing these clothes and just throw them away. 

Fast fashion, in a nutshell, is all about producing cheap, trendy clothing quickly. It takes inspiration from the latest runway trends, celebrity culture, and pop culture, turning them into low-quality and cheap clothes in record time to meet consumer demand. The goal is simple—to get the newest styles on the market as fast as possible so that shoppers can keep up with ever-evolving trends. 

You’ve probably encountered this when you’ve been urged not to repeat outfits and to stay ahead in the fashion game. But as for the downside, fast fashion’s speed has led to significant environmental, social, and ethical concerns. Here’s why it’s in the hot seat:

Environmental Impact

Fast fashion’s toxic system of overproduction and clothing consumption, makes it one of the largest polluters in our environment, consumes excessive energy, exacerbates the issue of climate change and global warming, and causes massive textile waste.

Human Cost

Garment workers in developing countries face meagre wages, unsafe working conditions, exposure to toxic chemicals, and long hours of factory work.


Clothes are often discarded after just a few wears, making the average item of clothing last only 14 times before consumers get rid of them, playing into the fashion cycle of waste.

Low Quality

Due to quick production, designs are not well-tested, and cheap, synthetic materials are used, leading to short-lived clothes.

How Did Fast Fashion Even Start?

How Fast Fashion Started

Before we dive deep into why and how fast fashion is problematic, let’s rewind a bit and explore how it all began. In the 1800s, fashion was slow, as people had to source their materials and craft their clothes. Then the Industrial Revolution brought technology like the sewing machine, making clothes faster and cheaper to produce. This led to the emergence of dressmaking shops.

However, safety concerns emerged with sweatshops. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York in 1911 claimed the lives of 146 garment workers, highlighting the unsafe conditions in factories.

Fast forward to the late 1990s and 2000s, online shopping took off, giving birth to fast fashion giants like H&M, Zara, and SHEIN. These brands took designs from top fashion houses, replicated them quickly and inexpensively, and made them available to the masses. This rapid production is what earned the term “fast fashion.” 

What Is the Environmental Impact of Fast Fashion?

Fast Fashion Environmental Impact

As fashion lovers chase the latest trend at an affordable price, the hidden costs of this industry rear their ugly heads in our waters, land, and air:

Water Waste and Pollution

Did you know that the fashion industry is the second-largest consumer of water globally, using about 700 gallons of water to produce a single cotton shirt and a staggering 2,000 gallons for a pair of jeans? 

And with fast fashion’s demand for new clothes at a quick pace, our water resources are placed under immense pressure more than ever. The excessive water usage of the fashion industry is especially concerning considering that nearly half of the global population faces water scarcity at some point during the year.

Plus, the dyeing and finishing processes in creating garments lead to pollution of water, with the leftover water often discharged into natural water bodies, causing contamination. In countries like Bangladesh, the fashion industry contributes to the discharge of 22,000 tons of toxic waste from tanneries into waterways annually, affecting both wildlife and human populations.

Surge of Microplastics

Fast fashion’s reliance on synthetic fibres like polyester, nylon, and acrylic worsens the problem of microplastics, with a startling 35% of all microplastics in the ocean attributed to the laundering of synthetic textiles. These synthetic materials take hundreds of years to biodegrade and release microfibres during washing, which eventually find their way into the oceans and the food chain. 

As a result, marine animals ingest these microplastics, causing physical harm and accumulation of toxins. This means that consumers who enjoy seafood may unknowingly be consuming microplastics. Research indicates that an average person might ingest up to 5 grams of microplastics weekly, equivalent to the size of a credit card.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Currently, the fashion industry’s carbon footprint is already larger than that of international flights and maritime shipping combined. If the current demand for fast fashion persists, the fashion industry’s carbon emissions could make up 26% of the total global carbon emissions by 2050.

The energy-intensive processes involved in producing, manufacturing, and transporting millions of garments each year consume large amounts of energy. For instance, producing white cotton emits the same amount of carbon as driving 35 miles in a car. Also, synthetic fabrics used in cheap clothing are derived from fossil fuels, adding to the carbon footprint.

Deforestation and Land Damage

The fashion industry is also a major driver of deforestation and land degradation. Raising animals for their wool, leather, and other materials leads to land overgrazing and damage to ecosystems, whilst wood pulp-based fibres, such as rayon and viscose, contribute to mass deforestation.


The textile industry employs a vast array of chemicals throughout the fast fashion production and manufacturing processes. Approximately 25% of the world’s chemical output is used in the apparel industry, resulting in chemicals in our clothing. For example, cotton garments contain an average of 17 teaspoons of chemicals, posing potential health risks to its wearer.

Textile Waste

A significant challenge with fast fashion is the disposal of textile waste. Many unsold or discarded clothing items, including deadstock and returns, are neither recycled nor donated. This leads to an immense amount of textile waste that often ends up in landfills or is incinerated, leaving behind microplastics.

Ethical Impact of the Fash Fashion Industry

Fast Fashion Ethical Impact

The garment industry, particularly fast fashion brands, poses significant social challenges, particularly in developing economies. Here’s a closer look at the social consequences of fast fashion, especially concerning the welfare of garment workers.

Exploitative Labour Practices

One of the most pressing issues in the fast fashion industry is the exploitation of garment workers. To keep prices low, many fast fashion brands need to cut production costs, and one of the primary ways they achieve this is by reducing labour expenses. Garment workers, who are often young women aged 18 to 24, bear the brunt of this cost-cutting strategy. The result is an unbearable workload, meagre wages that fall below the living wage, and hazardous working conditions.

For many years, fast fashion brands have chased low-cost labour around the world, often seeking countries with minimal labour standards to exploit workers. This exploitation includes poverty wages, human trafficking, child labour, physical and sexual abuse (especially against female garment workers), and other forms of exploitation. Tragically, these issues often go unnoticed by the general public and mainstream media.

The Rana Plaza disaster in 2013 was a significant turning point that shed light on the ethical concerns within the fashion industry. The Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh, which housed several garment factories, collapsed, resulting in the deaths of 1,134 workers and injuries to 2,600 others. The tragedy exposed the harsh reality of the fashion industry, where worker safety and dignity were sacrificed for profit. Despite this incident garnering attention, many similar large-scale tragedies continue to be underreported and unnoticed by the public.

Health Hazard

The use of harmful chemicals in clothing production can pose health risks to both consumers and garment workers. Benzothiazole, a chemical linked to cancer and respiratory illnesses, has been found in apparel on the market. As our skin is the body’s largest organ, wearing chemical-heavy clothes can be dangerous to our health. 

This danger is exacerbated in factories and communities where fast fashion is produced, as conventional textile dyeing often releases toxic substances into water systems, affecting both residents and wildlife.

Social Impact of Fast Fashion

Fast Fashion Social Impact

Fast fashion has changed how we shop and wear clothes. It meets what consumers want and gives a different experience from regular fashion. By closely monitoring social media, celebrity endorsements, and runway trends, fast fashion companies identify what’s hot in the fashion world. They then replicate these designs and bring them to market at record speed.

So, what are the issues with this kind of consumer experience?

Encourages “Throw-Away” Culture

Offering trendy clothes that are affordable, easy to find, and quickly match the latest fashion crazes, the fast fashion market has become a powerful player in the global fashion industry. It encourages consumers to constantly buy new clothing items to stay on top of ever-evolving trends.

The result: a culture of disposability, where clothing is worn a few times and then discarded. The constant need for new styles and the pressure to stay on-trend led to disposable fashion—an unending sense of consumer need and dissatisfaction.

Fast fashion companies also offer a constant influx of new styles, ensuring that there is always something fresh and exciting for consumers to discover. Fast fashion retailers, on the other hand, have mastered the art of creating a sense of urgency through limited stock and flash sales. This triggers a “fear of missing out” (FOMO) and encourages consumers to make impulsive purchases be it online or at fast fashion stores.

In a sense, the fast fashion model revolves around the idea of never making consumers wait, delivering the latest looks almost as soon as they appear on the runway.

The Allure of Affordable Prices

One of the most compelling aspects of fast fashion is its affordability. The allure of affordability is hard to resist, particularly for younger shoppers and budget-conscious individuals. Fast fashion democratises fashion by making it accessible to a broader range of consumers who may not be able to afford luxury or designer items. This affordability, combined with the thrill of discovering new styles regularly, lures in customers who are looking for fashion without breaking the bank.

How are these brands able to provide trendy clothing at incredibly low prices? They cut production costs through economies of scale, efficient supply chains, and low labour expenses, which then allow them to offer consumers an extensive range of products at affordable rates.

Fast Fashion Brands

Fast Fashion Brands

Several major players dominate this ever-changing market, popularising the fast fashion business model and influencing how consumers view and obtain budget-friendly clothing.  You might not be surprised that these brands have become household names.


One of the pioneers of fast fashion, Zara was founded in Spain in 1975. Its unique business model revolves around speed. It takes just 15 days for a garment to go from the design stage to being sold in stores, setting the standard for fast fashion worldwide. 

Zara’s introduction to the U.S. market in the early 1990s marked the beginning of the widespread use of the term “fast fashion” to describe brands with a focus on quick turnarounds.


H&M (Hennes & Mauritz) opened its doors in Sweden in 1947 and expanded internationally. It made its way to the United States in 2000. The brand is known for its fashion-forward, affordable clothing, offering everything from everyday wear to high-fashion collaborations. 

H&M, though, has taken steps towards sustainable fashion, promoting recycling, organic cotton, and ethical sourcing in its production processes.

SHEIN, Missguided, and More

A new breed of fast fashion brands has emerged, known as “ultra-fast fashion.” Brands like SHEIN, Missguided, Forever 21, Zaful, Boohoo, and Fashion Nova belong to this category. These brands are characterised by their ultra-low prices, frequent releases of new fast fashion garments (often thousands every day), and a keen focus on the latest fashion trends. 

Some of these ultra-fast fashion brands have faced controversies related to labour practices, significant environmental impact, and ethical concerns, shedding light on the dark side of extreme fast fashion.

Other notable fast-fashion players include UNIQLO, GAP, Primark, and Topshop.

What Can We Do?

Slow fashion

Both the fashion industry and consumers share the responsibility to tackle these environmental, ethical, and social problems that come with the fast fashion fad. You can be a sustainable fashion consumer by advocating for ethical and eco-friendly practices in fashion and choosing sustainable clothing companies and materials.

Raise Awareness About Ethical Shopping

The fashion world is changing, and consumers are realising the ethical and environmental impact of their choices. Social media plays a big role in revealing the not-so-glamorous aspects of the fast fashion clothing industry. With a tap on their screens, people are discovering the downside of fast fashion, like harmful production and unfair labour conditions. It’s a wake-up call for everyone involved.

As awareness grows, so does the demand for ethical shopping. Many consumers are making more thoughtful choices, seeking transparency in the supply chain, and supporting brands committed to fair labour practices.

This way, you don’t just buy a piece of clothing but also invest in a story, a set of values, and a vision for a better fashion future.

Shift or Return to Slow Fashion

Enter the slow fashion movement, a counter-revolution against the fast fashion frenzy. Slow fashion is all about quality over quantity, encouraging you to cherish your clothes and wear them more than just a few times. As a fashion marketing expert suggests, “Less is always more.”

Instead of endless collections and microseasons, slow fashion emphasises timeless designs and durability. This approach is a gentle nudge to embrace your white cotton shirt not for one season but for years.

The slow fashion movement invites you to rekindle your relationship with your clothes, reminding you that they aren’t disposable clothing but companions in your daily life. Timeless fashion is a style statement in itself and a conscientious nod to the planet.

Support Sustainable Brands

As the appetite for sustainable fashion grows, innovative brands are stepping up to the plate. Sustainable clothing brands are redefining the industry, creating eco-friendly clothing lines with high-quality materials that don’t contribute to massive textile waste, and being transparent about their supply chain. 

They also implement repair and resale programs, promoting the idea that a single high-quality jacket can last a lifetime with proper care.

Sustainable clothing brands are weaving sustainable fabrics into fashionable designs, proving that you can be both chic and eco-conscious. And as they gain momentum, they’re slowly but surely reshaping the fashion market.

Patagonia, Reformation, Stella McCartney, Levi’s—these are some of the brands that are at the forefront of the sustainable fashion movement, offering consumers alternatives to fast fashion.

Final Note

The allure of fast fashion is undeniable, but it’s high time to weigh it against its substantial environmental and social costs. 

By staying informed, making thoughtful choices, and advocating for a fashion world that treats the planet and its workers with respect, you can ensure that the future of fashion is not just stylish but sustainable. 

Don’t just follow trends; be a trendsetter in the pursuit of a more ethical, eco-conscious, and fashionable world.

Frequently Asked Questions

How is Zara fast fashion?

Karen Taylor

Karen Taylor lives in Brighton with her two girls and teen son. She adores coming upon stylish and comfortable finds for herself alongside cute and practical pieces for her kids as well. She hopes to help other older ladies with bustling lifestyles discover clothes that look good and keep up with their daily routines simultaneously.

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